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What is a Battery? How Does It Work?

A battery is a device that stores electrical energy as chemical energy and delivers it as electrical energy when needed.

The battery provides electrical current to the starter motor to run it first, sends current to the receivers to be used when the vehicle’s engine does not start, and balances voltage and amperage in the electrical system when the engine is running to ensure that the receivers do not get damaged since the voltage generated by the alternator at high speeds may spike at times. In this case, the battery takes up some of the current generated by the alternator to prevent voltage spikes. The 12-volt battery used in gasoline engines is comprised of six 2-volt cells connected serially. Generally, all components contain 5 positively and 6 negatively charged plates connected serially. These plates are manufactured by plastering active material on the lead-anemone alloy grids and drying them in kilns. Positive plates contain lead dioxide as the active material. Negative plates contain pure lead as the active material. There are isolating separators between plates to prevent short circuits. Separators are made of materials that have very small pores to ensure that they do not prevent chemical reactions. Electrolyte, which is a mixture of sulfuric acid and distilled water, is added into the battery. There are serial connections of lead bridges between the components.

How to connect battery to battery?

For battery to battery connection (jump start), make sure that the batteries have the same amperage value.
Turn off the engine and all other components that are likely to consume power.
First, connect the red end of the cable to the (+) terminal of the dead battery, and connect the other end to the terminal of the full battery.
Then, connect the black end of the cable to the (-) terminal of the full battery, and connect the other end to any metal part on the body of the vehicle with the dead battery.
Make sure that the cables do not contact moving or hot parts such as the exhaust outlet or the fan.
Run the vehicle with the full battery first and then the one with the dead battery.
Once the vehicles have run, you can remove the cables, starting from the vehicle with the dead battery.

What are the types of battery? What is a sealed or VRLA battery?

There are different types of batteries depending on the metal used, such as lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal.

The most common type used today is lead-acid batteries.

These are also divided into two subcategories, i.e. VRLA and flooded batteries.

The most widely used type of flooded batteries are the classic automobile batteries that are also referred to as Starter or SLI (Starting, Lighting and Ignition). There are two types of automobile batteries, i.e. fully sealed batteries and batteries with removable vent plugs. Both have the same internal structure. In other words, both are standard lead-acid batteries. The difference in sealed batteries is that their vent plugs cannot be removed. Since it is not possible to add water to these batteries, they are more suitable for vehicles with a good voltage mechanism.

Despite a different internal structure, Stationary and Traction (Forklift) batteries are also flooded batteries.

VRLA batteries have a different internal structure and a different technology. VRLA means valve regulated lead-acid battery. These are divided into two categories based on their internal structure.

AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) and gel VRLA batteries. The main feature of these batteries is that there is no acid overflow or leakage. Gas exhaust is minimal. This means that they are quite safe and have a much longer shelf life. They are also more resistant to vibration compared to flooded batteries. They can be shipped and transported conveniently. They are used in fixed units, UPS, boards and power plants, among others.

What is a UPS battery?

UPS stands for Uninterruptible Power Supply. A UPS battery is the battery used for these uninterruptible power supplies. Batteries of uninterruptible power supplies turn on in case of a power failure and keep providing electricity until power is restored. As mentioned above, these are VRLA batteries with a minimal gas exhaust.

Why is your newly purchased battery discharged quickly?

Possible reasons for discharge of your Çelik battery:

Unsuitable environmental and storage conditions, high temperatures, humidity, etc.
Leak currents (high currents used up from predicted short circuits) and lamps left on in the vehicle
Short circuits on other electrical devices and equipment
Incompatibility between the vehicle and the battery, using a small battery, additional equipment on the vehicle (sound, light and computer systems, cooling systems)

Is it possible for a battery to freeze?

Yes, batteries may freeze.

A fully charged battery may freeze at temperatures between -50 °C and -70 °C, which means a battery will not freeze under normal circumstances.

However, discharged batteries may freeze even at 0 °C to 10 °C, depending on their charge levels.

Make sure that your battery is charged especially in cold seasons.

Are batteries harmful to the environment? How many batteries are recovered?

Batteries are comprised of lead, sulfuric acid solution, and a polypropylene box.

For this reason, once they are unusable, they become waste harmful to the environment.

However, an efficient recycling system will ensure that 100% of the polypropylene box and lead parts of a battery are recovered. Although sulfuric acid can also be recovered, it is usually preferred to neutralize it.

There is efficient recycling available for batteries in our country. So, please return your old battery to the dealer when buying a new one.

See Waste Battery Management (

How should I charge a battery?

Click here to see Service Instructions.

How does the weather affect a battery?

Effects of weather on batteries:

1. In terms of storage:

Store your battery in a closed area. Storing a battery in an open space will increase self-discharge because of the dust and precipitations.Store your battery in the coolest and driest place possible. Discharge rate of a battery is proportional to the temperature. In general, each 10 °C rise in temperature will double the self-discharge. Therefore, storing a battery under a temperature of between 10 to 16 °C will be much healthier than 25 to 30 °C.

2. When working on the vehicle:

The cranking power of a battery will increase in hot weather, but so does corrosion on the battery. For this reason, batteries used in hot climates have a shorter service life.
The cranking power of a battery will decrease in cold weather. However, the cranking value of the vehicle’s engine will increase. This means that the cranking power of a battery in cold weather is important. In extremely cold weather, the liquid (electrolytes) inside the battery may freeze. A fully charged battery will freeze at around -70 °C while a discharged battery may freeze even at -5 °C, depending on the level of discharge. For this reason, it is very important to keep the battery charged under cold conditions.